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Table 6 Combined parameter estimations of the gravity model of migration

From: Complex network of United States migration

 2004–2007 (∆t = 4)2008–2011 (∆t = 4)2012–2015 (∆t = 4)2004–2015 (∆t = 16)
AverageVarianceAverageVarianceAverageVarianceAverageVariance
δ− 1.942.9 × 10−2− 2.374 × 10−2− 2.284.7 × 10−2− 2.196.8 × 10−2
γ (distance)0.691 × 10−20.801.1 × 10−40.783 × 10−50.765.4 × 10−3
MSE1.622 × 10−12.412 × 10−32.382 × 10−32.142 × 10−1
Population
 α (source)0.474.1 × 10−30.543.3 × 10−40.572.7 × 10−40.533.2 × 10−3
 β (destination)0.455.6 × 10−30.561.2 × 10−40.571.2 × 10−40.534.5 × 10−3
Political affiliation
 α (source)0.222 × 10−40.016.3 × 10−40.141.2 × 10−30.128.4 × 10−3
 β (destination)0.649.5 × 10−30.423.9 × 10−30.618.7 × 10−40.561.5 × 10−2
Poverty
 α (source)0.271.5 × 10−20.578.4 × 10−30.421.9 × 10−30.422.3 × 10−2
 β (destination)0.341.8 × 10−20.571.2 × 10−20.434.2 × 10−30.451.9 × 10−2
Unemployment
 α (source)0.731.8 × 10−30.601.7 × 10−20.644 × 10−30.669.4 × 10−3
 β (destination)0.717.8 × 10−30.582 × 10−20.627 × 1030.641.2 × 10−2