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Table 5 Parameter estimations of the gravity model of migration

From: Complex network of United States migration

 2004–2007 (∆t = 4)2008–2011 (∆t = 4)2012–2015 (∆t = 4)2004–2015 (∆t = 16)
AverageVarianceAverageVarianceAverageVarianceAverageVariance
Population
 δ− 5.821 × 10−2− 5.901.2 × 10−2− 5.512.8 × 10−2− 5.744.5 × 10−2
 α (source)0.551.7 × 10−50.534.5 × 10−50.464.5 × 10−30.512.8 × 10−3
 β (destination)0.568 × 10−60.554.9 × 10−50.466.4 × 10−30.524.2 × 10−3
 γ (distance)0.825 × 10−50.812 × 10−40.701.2 × 10−20.786.6 × 10−3
 MSE2.105.2 × 10−42.112.2 × 10−41.422 × 10−11.881.7 × 10−1
Political affiliation
 δ− 6.381.7 × 10−2− 6.521.2 × 10−2− 5.381.2 × 10−2− 6.093.2 × 10−1
 α (source)0.891.1 × 10−30.838.3 × 10−40.362.5 × 10−40.706.3 × 10−2
 β (destination)0.972.6 × 10−40.901.2 × 10−30.942 × 10−20.936.6 × 10−3
 γ (distance)0.052.6 × 10−60.091.8 × 10−50.027.5 × 10−50.058.7 × 10−4
 MSE2.844.3 × 10−42.781.3 × 10−42.013.5 × 10−12.52.5 × 10−1
Poverty
 δ− 4.884.6 × 10−2− 4.646.6 × 10−2− 4.384.8 × 10−2− 4.639 × 10−2
 α (source)0.802.7 × 10−30.869.4 × 10−30.787.6 × 10−30.816.5 × 10−3
 β (destination)0.851.4 × 10−30.901.2 × 10−30.828 × 10−30.864.2 × 10−3
 γ (distance)0.012.4 × 10−40.032.1 × 10−40.032.8 × 10−40.022.8 × 10−4
 MSE3.141.6 × 10−33.152.4 × 10−32.203.8 × 10−12.833.2 × 10−1
Unemployment
 δ− 3.691.2 × 10−1− 3.861.5 × 10−1− 2.952.5 × 10−1− 3.503.1 × 10−1
 α (source)1.321.7 × 10−31.431.7 × 10−21.382.8 × 10−21.381.5 × 10−2
 β (destination)1.342 × 10−31.431.5 × 10−21.401.8 × 10−21.399.9 × 10−3
 γ (distance)0.058.2 × 10−40.145.8 × 10−40.101.6 × 10−30.102.1 × 10−3
 MSE3.143 × 10−33.037.8 × 10−42.153.5 × 10−12.773.1 × 10−1
  1. Each parameter is independently calculated for α, source, destination, and distance coefficients. In addition, mean squared error is reported for each network sample